Vitamin F could make cell walls more permeable to vitamins, equally to what is supposed in case of glucose in order to prevent diabetes
The linoleic acid becomes integrated with the membrane structures assuring them a normal permeability. It is the raw material for the synthesis of other polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well of prostaglandins, lecithins, myelin, nerve sheaths, etc. and plays a crucial role for the immune equilibrium.
Therefore, biologically active vitamins F are of extreme importance and all developed societies are affected by deficiency in these vitamins. Daily requirement of vitamin F was calculated to be 10-20 grams (contained for example in one or two and a half spoons of cold-pressed sunflower oil), which is usually not fulfilled (Schweigart).
Polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrate in sunflower seeds, linseeds, sesame, cottonseeds, poppy-seeds, sundrops, etc., which contain great amounts. So the oil obtained from their seeds contains only a percentage ranging from 2% to 8%. Grass is rich in vitamin F but, although a cow daily consumes about 300 grams, bacteria contained in the animal rumen destruct a great part of it. So cow milk results to be three times poorer in these vitamins compared to the mother’s milk. After the Second World War, around the ‘50s, a certain number of apparently different diseases affected younger and younger people more and more frequently (autoimmune diseases, cancers, allergies…).
During those years a rather abnormal situation arose: on the one hand the permanent currency depreciation had caused an increase of the price of foodstuffs, on the other hand the price of oils was reduced. Naturally, nobody wondered why this happened. This decrease in oil price was a positive factor for the family budget.
But what really happened? During the war, foodstuffs were rationed because the supply of food with a right calorific value – above all that of fats – was insufficient. In order to increase the supply of fatty substances and to put them into the market, some technicians carried out the hot-extraction of greater amounts of oil from the available oil seeds (at temperatures ranging from 160° to 200° C). So the oil obtained was refined and it lost its original flavour and taste; it resulted to be extremely practical, unalterable and heat-stable, chemically unchangeable under the effects of heating, air oxygen and light. These factors usually adulterate the cold-pressed oil, thus making it rancid. Since the yield doubled, the price went down.
People usually consider oil as accessory food which supplies calories and then energy through burning inside the body. However, ongoing scientific progress is more and more worried about the catastrophic consequences of such an evolution for our health. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are fragile substances which easily turn into more stable isomers at particularly high temperatures, during the extraction or food preparation. There are some anomalous intestinal bacteria which can cause this transformation. Cis-cis COOH groups- which are biologically active- become completely inactive cis-trans COOH groups in the above mentioned particular conditions, through the molecular fragments rotation at the level of double bonds (H. Sinclair).
Linoleic cis-cis natural acid (vitamin F1) performs numerous functions in our body. It becomes part of the cell membranes and it assures them the normal impermeability, thus protecting our body from attacks of external world. A deficiency in vitamin F causes a loss of water through evaporation which immediately determines a raging thirst. This type of phenomenon can be easily demonstrated in rats. If a rat with nutrition deficiency is put under a bell glass, this one immediately steams up, which does not take place if the rat is properly fed. Children lacking in vitamin F are really thirsty, they suck damp cloths and continuously drink tap water. Through an intake of vitamin F, the situation gets back to normal.
The deficiency in vitamin F manifests itself in school age children thorough common infections which tend to be recurring or chronic. A healthy and naturally fed organism is absolutely able to get over these infections, such as recurrent colds, permanent sinusitises (both in winter and in summer), allergies of the skin (eczema, urticaria) or of respiratory tract (hay cold, bronchial asthma), which usually affect different organs. In order to treat these infections traditional medicine resorts to antibiotics, antihistamines and cortisone, which bring temporary relief without solving the real cause.
Another warning signal is given by the skin, which undergoes a change; the deficiency in vitamin F – biologically active – makes the skin very dry, beginning from feet, legs and then to all body. The skin becomes rough and flakes off in particles so small as to seem flour and when the woman takes off her nylon stockings, she is literally enveloped in a “dust” cloud. These signs and clinical symptoms are steady in my patients affected by severe diseases. Their skin seems to be 10 or even 20 years older.
Therefore, I suggest that you check the condition of your skin, which has to be smooth and silky, soft to the feel, as healthy skins, regardless of the age. If you notice that your skin easily flakes off or is wrinkled, it means that something does not work properly. You should know that Nature sends you a precious warning: your body is not satisfied of how you treat it. Clearly, you nourish the skin with unnecessary fatty substances (maybe artificial) or with oils containing inactive vitamin F or with oils naturally lacking in it. You should eliminate these inappropriate substances by replacing them with cold-pressed sunlight oil, which is rich in vitamin F. This one should be used to prepare salads, wholemeal cereal soups or steamed and then mashed potatoes; in short time, your skin will be normal again, as well your digestive mucosa, which is really important because of its extension and its numerous functions. If the digestive mucosa is not properly stretched, it covers a surface of 40 m2, otherwise if it is correctly stretched – including its smallest folds and villosities – can cover a total surface from 400 to 600 m2. It is an extraordinary thin mucosa, which is coated with a single cellular layer usually of 2 hundredth of millimetre; since it is very fragile, it reforms completely every 2 days.
Being very similar to the skin, it easily flakes off and therefore a sufficient amount of vitamin F should be taken. Otherwise, it becomes too permeable and protects no longer from toxic substances periodically present in the intestinal cavities. If these substances are too many, they can be no more neutralized by the liver and the ganglion lymphaticums, thus poisoning the body. The first symptom of such a severe alteration is diffused and persistent fatigue, which can be seen as a prelude to different chronic diseases affecting more than one third of the population, i.e. cancer, evolutionary chronic polyarthritis, sclerose en plaques or another autoimmune diseases, according to constitution of people. If the deficiency in vitamin F is chronic, vascular diseases (arteriosclerosis, phlebitis and thrombosis, myocardial infarction), chronic hepatic and digestive disorders (diarrhoea or more frequently costiveness), a lowering of the body resistance to viruses and bacteria, tumours, etc. can appear.
The cholesterol – precious raw material from which the body synthesizes vitamin D, sex and adrenal hormones, forms very soluble Salts with polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the absence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the cholesterol ties itself with saturated fatty acids, thus forming little soluble salts which create yellow deposits in the skin, vessels and mucosas (xanthelasmas) and calculuses in the biliary vesicle. This happens very often in people consuming excessive amounts of fats and fewer oils.
Vitamin F performs another essential function: acting as raw material for the production of prostaglandins, which are important vital substances regulating the metabolism of each cell. Prostaglandins (whose etymological derivation is not correct because the prostate contains very few of them) are biologically active and important substances, present in each cell and originated from polyunsaturated fatty acids. They were isolated by von Euler in 1935 and nowadays some of them can be synthesized. They regulate the metabolism and are released from phospholipids of cell membranes, which incorporate their precursors.
Nowadays, 14 prostaglandins are known. They are originated from unsaturated fatty acids, whose chain centre, between 9 and 13 carbons, forms a ring of 5 carbon atoms. They differ from each other in the number and the position of the doubled bonds (2-5) and of some rare O and OH groups on the chain.
The discover of prostaglandins allowed to understand numerous symptoms due to a lack of vitamin F, their low specificity, the extraordinary health improvements obtained through the replacement of saturated fats with cold-pressed unsaturated oils. I said “replacement” and not “addition” not at random, because in case of food containing too many saturated fatty substances, such as butter, the intake of vitamin F causes only a slight improvement, sometimes useless. Every kind of alteration of the cell membrane causes the release of prostaglandins, which provide local protection and nourishment and regulate the penetration of hormones – which are put into the bloodstream by endocrine glands- into the cells (according to their needs). They were defined as “cell hormones” because they play a significant role in regulating intercellular chemical processes.
Prostaglandins are active already in presence of an amount of a milligram thousandth. Even a minimum alteration of their structure can modify their action, which is different in the various organs and animal species and can be reversed. Locally they are very active and once introduced in the plasma they live 1-3 minutes on average, after that half of them become inactive; they are produced very fast and die soon; for this reason are not used much in the pharmaceutical sector.
The following is an example of prostaglandin PGE1 activity: an abnormal blood clot, known as thrombus, can form in a vessel if firstly the cells, called platelet, agglutinate. PGE1 prevents this agglutination. Nowadays thrombosis (or formation of a thrombus) is considered as a very frequent – and sometimes dangerous – postoperative complication, because the clot can move and then obstruct vital vessels (embolism). This kind of disorder could be caused by a lack of PGE1 due to a deficiency in biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids. In order to prevent thrombosis, anticoagulant drugs are usually prescribed, but they can provoke severe haemorrhages. Therefore, it is always necessary to keep under medical control the blood circulation. At the experimental stage, it was demonstrated that in mice thrombosis can be prevented with a diet rich in linoleic acid or the intake of PGE1 (Owien, Hellem e Odegaard).
At the experimental stage, increasing the amount of linoleic acid in the diet (2 millilitres linseed oil every day) allowed to lower the platelet adhesiveness, thus avoiding thrombosis. Consequently, the type of fatty substances can significantly contribute to the outbreak of similar diseases. During more than 30 years of profession, among my patients, whose diet had been corrected for more than two months by decreasing saturated fatty substances and adding cold-pressed oils rich in vitamin F, there were no cases of postoperative thrombosis without resorting to anticoagulants.
As said before, prostaglandin – which prevents thrombosis – originates from linoleic acid; but there is one type of prostaglandin deriving from arachidonic acid with the opposite function. If it is not impossible to prevent a coagulation in a vessel, however in case of haemorrhage it is necessary to cause the aggregation of thrombocytes, thus allowing the formation of the blood clot. In order to do that, prostaglandin PGE2 is used.
Prostaglandin biological activities are various and numerous: they regulate the activity of the smooth musculature and glands; they activate the water and electrolyte secretion in the intestine by stimulating its motility; but if they are produced in excessive amounts they can cause diarrhoea; they stimulate the secretion of adrenal hormones (aldosterone and cortisone) influencing the activity of the hypophysis and affecting the metabolism regulation of water and mineral salts. It was supposed that the arterial hypertension originates from a deficiency in prostaglandin. A nerve stimulus is due to the prostaglandins produced by brain and spinal marrow. The spinal marrow contributes to the transmission of the nerve impulse. Prostaglandins are also necessary for the procreation as they help the spermatozoon to enter the ovule; the sperm is normally rich in prostaglandins and has 13 different species of them. It was noticed a lack of prostaglandins in 8% of male sterility cases. Furthermore, it was supposed that during the childbirth contractions are caused by a release of prostaglandins, which are more numerous in amniotic fluid in that particular moment. Whereas during menstrual periods, the amount of these substances increases in the blood circulation. Taking prostaglandins can cause violent inflammations with high temperature.
Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as the Aspirin, stop the synthesis of some prostaglandins and influence negatively the activity of the others, by opposing to the stimulating effects on the sensible pain receptors (PGE2). Some tests carried out on rats demonstrated that taking prostaglandins prevents the gastric ulcer caused by high doses of cortisone. I can say that patients with a high percentage of linoleic acid never had this kind of complication, despite cortisone treatments over an extended period of time.
By increasing or decreasing intercellular metabolic processes and by regulating intercellular nucleotide synthesis (AMP and cyclic GMPs), prostaglandins play a significant role in the processes of biological regulation performing different and specific functions in the various mechanisms of cell self-defence. A prostaglandin insufficient production, caused by an insufficient intake of raw material allowing the synthesis, determines a lowering of vital resistance and disorders of different origin, in particular those affecting the body immunity.
Currently, the common diet is really deficient in biologically active linoleic acid, i.e. the raw material of prostaglandins. In particular in the European countries it is too rich in calories, 30%-45% of which derive from saturated animal fats. In men vitamin F requirement is significantly increased, being proportional to the amounts of calories and fatty substances consumed. A normal subject reacts to the intake of fatty substances with an overproduction of lecithin and an increase of this one in the blood and in the bile. Moreover, each molecule of lecithin includes one or two polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Some people hope that synthesis of longer-living prostaglandin could treat the different diseases in a more effective and “natural” way. We could ask ourselves whether Nature gave these extraordinary regulators such a great variety, short life and numerous cell functions in order to fulfil specific needs and whether the synthesis of longer-living synthesised substances involving all cells – both cells which need it and cells which do not – would not cause a number of unwanted side effects.
Isn’t so more reasonable and then wiser supplying a proper intake of raw material in the form of natural linoleic acid, allowing it to perform directly such a delicate synthesis?
As above underlined, there are two types of prostaglandins: one is known as PGE1, which derives from cis-cis linoleic acid and has anti-inflammatory properties, the other one is known as PGE2, which derives from arachidonic acid and contributes to the inflammatory processes.
Our health needs a perfect equilibrium between these two prostaglandins. Recent studies demonstrated that cis-cis linoleic acid has to undergo different chemical modifications to become PGE1. The first modification regards the production of gamma-linoleic fatty acid. In the first stage the linoleic acid molecule gained an extra double valence, passing from two to three. It is a very difficult chemical transformation, which absolutely needs a specific enzyme (delta-6-desaturase), vitamin B6, Magnesium, Zinc and vitamin B3. The following transformations into di-homogamma linolenic acid with 20 carbon atoms (helped by vitamin C) and then into PGE1 prostaglandin take place more easily.
If the first reaction occurs in advanced age, it takes place with some difficulties, determining malaise and fatigue and in some cases actual diseases. Similar alterations can take place also when one is young, if the body lacks in cis-cis linoleic acid, i.e. the raw material essential to the prostaglandin production; moreover, using more and more industrial fatty substances can determine these alterations. In nature linoleic acid exists only in the form of cis-cis; its isomer, i.e. cis-trans-linoleic acid, is produced by man. Currently, fatty substances, which are on the market and are manipulated by industries, contain no longer the cis-cis group, which was replaced by cis-trans group. This one is not able to transform into PGE1 and blocks the present cis-cis group, thus increasing its deficiency.
The above mentioned alterations or disorders can also occur because of a lack of the transformation enzyme (delta-6-desaturase), or vitamin B6, Magnesium or Zinc.
In this way, a deficiency in B6 vitamin can cause diseases similar to those caused by a lack of vitamin F. Once gamma-linoleic acid is produced, the different transformations can take place, thus producing di-homo-gammalinolenic acid, and then PGE1, in presence of vitamin C and vitamin B3.
It could be useful to give doses of prepared gamma-linoleic acid – which is very rare in nature – to old people or people suffering from particular diseases (for example, ectopics). It is possible to obtain it from the seeds of two plants: Oenothera biennis and Borrago officinalis.
Oenothera biennis seeds oil contains 7-9% of gamma-linoleic acid, whereas Borrago officinalis seeds oil contains 23%. The capability of body cells to produce prostaglandin PGE1 in a normal way and according to the needs is an essential factor for our body equilibrium and health because the PGE1 regulates the normal functioning of the immune systems, which otherwise are insufficient and aberrant. PGE1 prevents every kind of pathologic inflammation physiologically. In case of an excess of PGE2prostaglandin, which contributes to inflammatory processes and results to be dangerous, corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs stop the overproduction; unfortunately, these drugs stop at the same time PGE1 production, making the recovery impossible.
That’s why they have to be considered as simple palliatives.
PGE1 controls the blood circulation, prevents arterial hypertension, heart disorders and arteriosclerosis. Coronary diseases alarmingly increased during this century. This is due to the development of techniques of food cultivation, refining and preservation, which impoverish our diet by eliminating Magnesium, vitamins B6, F and E. The greater consume of fatty substances and the use of vegetable fats, such as Margarine or hot-pressed and refined oils, gave epidemic proportions to these diseases, which affect also young people. Carcinogenic cells abundantly produce PGE2 but not PGE1; in cell cultures, human cells can become malignant through irradiation or carcinogenic chemical substances, losing their capability to transform cis-cis linoleic acid into gamma-linoleic acid and to form PGE1.
In case of a patient affected by cancer, it is very useful to take gamma-linoleic acid. This one strengthens the beneficial
action of vitamin C.
There are different defence lines of our body against carcinogenic toxic substances: the first one is the intestinal mucosa, the second one is the liver and the third one is the cell membrane, which protects the cell itself from the penetration of carcinogenic toxic agents.
PGE1 prostaglandin is the most powerful defence agent against cancer. Recently, it has been discovered a prostaglandin which derives from gamma-linoleic acid and is able to stimulate immune system’s T lymphocytes.
Vitamin F – biologically active – is therefore extremely important for our body; we know that it is found in all oil seeds and in cold-pressed oils, above all in sunflower, linseed and wheat germ oils, which do not require added solvents. Nut oil has to be heated to at least 40° C, which should not endanger the presence of vitamin F but remains a risk factor. Olive oil is instead poor in vitamin F (2-8%), whereas the other oils are richer (50-70%). Safflower seeds, which are very hardy, have to be pressed more strongly, at a temperature ranging from 58° to 60° C during the oil extraction. This temperature range represents the limit above which the biological properties of vitamin F disappear.
Beneficial effects of Oenothera biennis oil are numerous and polyvalent: it alleviates premenstrual pains and regulates menstrual periods; if associated with Zinc, it can be effective against acne; finally, it has positive effects in case of Sjögren syndrome. Behind the nape and along vertebral column, our body has a special fatty brown tissue, whose cells are particularly rich in mitochondria and produce heat. Moreover, by protecting from cold and through an internal combustion, these cells destroy excess calories. If the individual is obese, this tissue does not work properly, but an intake of gamma-linoleic acid stimulates through prostaglandins the mitochondria of fatty tissue, determining a gradual normalization of the weight without resorting to severe diets.
It was observed that patients with diabetes – who follow a diet rich in polyunsaturated acids – suffer from fewer eye and heart complications.
The two functions of cis-cis linoleic acid are different and equally necessary for the human health: it guarantees the normal permeability of cell membranes and tegumentary tissues; on the other side, it is the raw material for the production of PGE1.
Gamma-linoleic acid – which is the precursory of PGE1 and originates from cis-cis linoleic acid – cannot replace cis-cis linoleic acid in the performing the first above mentioned function; the following case clearly demonstrates it.
Note of the author (Doctor Giuseppe Nacci):
Vitamin F could make cell walls more permeable to vitamins, equally to what is supposed in case of glucose in order to prevent diabetes.
Basically, it is supposed that the low percentage of people suffering from cancer before the Second World War – together with the low percentage of diabetic patients – could be correlated to the limited presence of saturated fatty acids in the diet and to the great availability of polyunsaturated fatty acids contained in cold-pressed oils.
Nowadays, however, the reintroduction of cold-pressed linseed or sunflower oils is NOT a sufficient sign of food safety. Unfortunately, the introduction of cultivations of GMO flax (Genetically Modified Organism) in the open country of the USA, even close to the border of Canada (the major world producer of biological linseed cold-pressed oil), represents severe and unjustified obstacles and damage to this therapy, not only with regard to diabetes and cancers treatments, but also to other chronic-degenerative diseases.
(Partially extracted from “Catherine Kousmine: “Salvate il vostro corpo”, Tecniche Nuove, second edition pages 223-
Source: The book Thousand Plants against Cancer without Chemo-Therapy, author Giuseppe Nacci, M.D